Tower of London

Tower of London

Her Majesty’s Royal Palace and Fortress, known as the Tower of London, is a historic castle located on the north bank of the River Thames in central London. It lies within the London Borough of Tower Hamlets, separated from the eastern edge of the square mile of the City of London by the open space known as Tower Hill. It was founded towards the end of 1066 as part of the Norman Conquest of England. The White Tower, which gives the entire castle its name, was built by William the Conqueror in 1078, and was a resented symbol of oppression, inflicted upon London by the new ruling elite. The castle was used as a prison from 1100 (Ranulf Flambard) until 1952 (Kray twins), although that was not its primary purpose. A grand palace early in its history, it served as a royal residence. As a whole, the Tower is a complex of several buildings set within two concentric rings of defensive walls and a moat. There were several phases of expansion, mainly under Kings Richard the Lionheart, Henry III, and Edward I in the 12th and 13th centuries. The general layout established by the late 13th century remains despite later activity on the site.

The Tower of London has played a prominent role in English history. It was besieged several times and controlling it has been important to controlling the country. The Tower has served variously as an armoury, a treasury, a menagerie, the home of the Royal Mint, a public records office, and the home of the Crown Jewels of the United Kingdom. From the early 14th century until the reign of Charles II, a procession would be led from the Tower to Westminster Abbey on the coronation of a monarch. In the absence of the monarch, the Constable of the Tower is in charge of the castle. This was a powerful and trusted position in the medieval period. In the late 15th century the castle was the prison of the Princes in the Tower. Under the Tudors, the Tower became used less as a royal residence, and despite attempts to refortify and repair the castle its defences lagged behind developments to deal with artillery.

The peak period of the castle’s use as a prison was the 16th and 17th centuries, when many figures who had fallen into disgrace, such as Elizabeth I before she became queen, were held within its walls. This use has led to the phrase “sent to the Tower”. Despite its enduring reputation as a place of torture and death, popularised by 16th-century religious propagandists and 19th-century writers, only seven people were executed within the Tower before the World Wars of the 20th century. Executions were more commonly held on the notorious Tower Hill to the north of the castle, with 112 occurring there over a 400-year period. In the latter half of the 19th century, institutions such as the Royal Mint moved out of the castle to other locations, leaving many buildings empty. Anthony Salvin and John Taylor took the opportunity to restore the Tower to what was felt to be its medieval appearance, clearing out many of the vacant post-medieval structures. In the First and Second World Wars, the Tower was again used as a prison, and witnessed the executions of 12 men for espionage. After the Second World War, damage caused during the Blitz was repaired and the castle reopened to the public. Today the Tower of London is one of the country’s most popular tourist attractions. Under the ceremonial charge of the Constable of the Tower, it is cared for by the charity Historic Royal Palaces and is protected as a World Heritage Site.

Outline
Her Majesty's Royal Palace and Fortress, known as the Tower of London, is a historic castle located on the north bank of the River Thames in central London.

Recommended world heritage video

  1. Levoča, Spišský Hrad and the Associated Cultural Monuments

    Levoča, Spišský Hrad and the Associated Cultural Monuments

  2. Rila Monastery

    Rila Monastery

  3. Churches of Peace in Jawor and Swidnica

    Churches of Peace in Jawor and Swidnica

  1. Old Rauma

    Old Rauma

  2. Cathedral, Torre Civica and Piazza Grande, Modena

    Cathedral, Torre Civica and Piazza Grande, Modena

  3. Val d’Orcia

    Val d’Orcia

  1. Works of Antoni Gaudí

    Works of Antoni Gaudí

  2. City of Graz – Historic Centre and Schloss Eggenberg

    City of Graz – Historic Centre and Schloss Eggenberg

  3. Monastery of the Hieronymites and Tower of Belém in Lisbon

    Monastery of the Hieronymites and Tower of Belém in Lisbon

  1. Historic Centre of Riga

    Historic Centre of Riga

  2. Røros Mining Town and the Circumference

    Røros Mining Town and the Circumference

  3. Lednice – Valtice Cultural Landscape

    Lednice – Valtice Cultural Landscape

  1. Archaeological Sites of Mycenae and Tiryns

    Archaeological Sites of Mycenae and Tiryns

  2. Palmeral of Elche

    Palmeral of Elche

  3. Historic Fortified City of Carcassonne

    Historic Fortified City of Carcassonne

  1. Royal Monastery of Santa María de Guadalupe

    Royal Monastery of Santa María de Guadalupe

  2. Lugo

    Lugo

  3. Palau de la Música Catalana and Hospital de Sant Pau, Barcelona

    Palau de la Música Catalana and Hospital de Sant Pau, Barcelona

  1. Parco Nazionale del Cilento, Vallo di Diano e Alburni

    Parco Nazionale del Cilento, Vallo di Diano e Alburni

  2. Historic Areas of Istanbul

    Historic Areas of Istanbul

  3. San Millán Yuso and Suso Monasteries

    San Millán Yuso and Suso Monasteries

  1. City of Luxembourg: its Old Quarters and Fortifications

    City of Luxembourg: its Old Quarters and Fortifications

  2. Old and New Towns of Edinburgh

    Old and New Towns of Edinburgh

  3. Las Médulas

    Las Médulas

  1. Warszawa

    Warszawa

  2. Canterbury Cathedral, St. Augustine’s Abbey, and St. Martin’s Church

    Canterbury Cathedral, St. Augustine’s Abbey, and St. Martin’s Church

  3. Mont-Saint-Michel and its Bay

    Mont-Saint-Michel and its Bay

  1. Monasteries of Haghpat and Sanahin

    Monasteries of Haghpat and Sanahin

  2. Monastery and Site of the Escurial, Madrid

    Monastery and Site of the Escurial, Madrid

  3. Alhambra

    Alhambra

  1. Ring of Brodgar

    Ring of Brodgar

  2. Upper Middle Rhine Valley

    Upper Middle Rhine Valley

  3. The Trulli of Alberobello

    The Trulli of Alberobello

  1. Tower of Hercules

    Tower of Hercules

  2. Acropolis of Athens

    Acropolis of Athens

  3. Rhaetian Railway in the Albula / Bernina Landscapes

    Rhaetian Railway in the Albula / Bernina Landscapes

  1. Historic Site of Lyons

    Historic Site of Lyons

  2. Alhambra, Generalife and Albayzin, Granada

    Alhambra, Generalife and Albayzin, Granada

  3. Cathedral, Alcázar and Archivo de Indias in Seville

    Cathedral, Alcázar and Archivo de Indias in Seville

facebook comments
Comment
To the Top