Citadel, Ancient City and Fortress Buildings of Derbent
Derbent (Russian: Дербе́нт; Lezgian: Кьвевар; Azerbaijani: Dərbənd; Avar: Дербенд; Lak: Чурул, Churul; Judæo-Tat: דארבּאנד/Дэрбэнд/Dərbənd; Persian: دربند. Its etymology derives from the Persian Darband (“locked gate”); known to the Arabs as Bāb al Abwab (“Gate of Gates”) and to the Turks as Demirkapı (“Iron Gate”) is a city in the Republic of Dagestan, Russia, located on the Caspian Sea, north of the Azerbaijani border. It is the southernmost city in Russia, and it is the second most important city of Dagestan. Population: 119,200 (2010 Census); 101,031 (2002 Census); 78,371 (1989 Census).
Derbent occupies the narrow gateway between the Caspian Sea and the Caucasus Mountains connecting the Eurasian steppes to the north and the Middle East to the south. Often identified with the legendary Gates of Alexander, Derbent claims to be the oldest city in Russia (8th century BCE). Since antiquity, the value of the area as the gate to the Caucasus has been understood, and Derbent has archaeological structures over 5,000 years old. As a result of this geographic particularity, the city developed between two walls, stretching from the mountains to the sea. These fortifications were continuously employed for a millennium and a half, longer than any other extant fortress in the world. Over the years, different nations gave the city different names, but all connected to the word gate; its name in Persian is Darband, which means “closed gates”.
- Derbent (Russian: Дербе́нт; Lezgian: Кьвевар; Azerbaijani: Dərbənd; Avar: Дербенд; Lak: Чурул, Churul; Judæo-Tat: דארבּאנד/Дэрбэнд/Dərbənd; Persian: دربند.